Foreign Missions in Kyiv in the Period of the Directorate of Ukraine: Forced Returning Home

  • Post Category:Issue XX

Iryna Matiash
Doctor of History, Professor, leading researcher of the Department of History of International Relations and Foreign Policy of Ukraine of the Institute of History of Ukraine of the NAS of Ukraine, Head of the Scientific Society of History of Diplomacy and International Relations

DOI https://doi.org/10.37837/2707-7683-2019-3

Abstract. The article construes diplomatic presence of foreign states in the period of the Ukrainian People’s Republic and the Ukrainian State in Kyiv as the entry of independent Ukraine to the international arena. It is emphasized that the activity of every foreign mission at that time merits separate study.
It is highlighted that with the advent of the Directorate to power in December 2018, all diplomatic missions found themselves in similar circumstances as the unrelenting approach of the Bolsheviks to the capital of Ukraine threatened their presence in Kyiv. The article covers the issues of organizing cooperation with the new government, faced by both the representatives of the ‘old’ consular corps and envoys of the Hetman government, who did not cease their activity after the transition of power to the Directorate.
The meeting of Volodymyr Vynnychenko, Symon Petliura, Fedir Shvets and Panas Andriievskyi at the railway station was mentioned. The meeting was also attended by thousands of Kyiv residents, as well as foreign representatives, such as Turkish envoy Mukhtar Bey, Finnish envoy Herman Gummerus, Bulgarian envoy Ivan Shishmanov, Ataman of the winter stanitsa of the All-Great Army of the Don General O. V. Cheriachukin, Consul of Switzerland, Duian of Consular Corps Gabriel Annie, Consul of Spain and Portugal Stelio Vasiliadi, not yet officially recognized Consul of Holland Timothy Fokker, representatives of Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan.
The article examines the hopes and tactics of various diplomatic parties with regard to decisions made at the 1919 Paris Conference. It is argued that the Directorate not only demonstrated its loyalty to most of the foreign missions but also provided financial loans upon their duly substantiated requests. The article sheds light on the events of 22 January 1919 and the involvement therein of all foreign representatives, the departure of diplomatic missions and further activities of those who remained in Kyiv.
Keywords: the Directorate, diplomatic missions, government, foreign representatives and figures.

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