The Military-Political Alliance and Diplomatic Cooperation of the UPR and the WUPR

  • Post Category:Issue XX

Ihor Datskiv
Doctor of History, Professor at the Department of International Law, International Relations and Diplomacy of Ternopil National Economic University, Member of the Scientific Society of History of Diplomacy and International Relations

DOI https://doi.org/10.37837/2707-7683-2019-4

Abstract. The article deals with the relationship between the West Ukrainian People’s Republic and the Ukrainian People’s Republic during the Ukrainian revolution of 1917–1921. Within this framework, the military-political union and the interaction in the diplomatic sphere between the UPR and the WUPR are examined.
It is noted that the question of the Union of the WUPR with Dnipro Ukraine arose due to the large-scale aggression of Poland in the West and the offensive of the Bolsheviks from the East. However, it was envisaged that the WUPR would be granted broad autonomy with its own army and government. The WUPR received considerable military and material aid from the UPR, which contributed to the war with a much stronger enemy.
It is argued that after the union was created, there was a need for harmonization and co-ordination of foreign policy of the states and their foreign affairs agencies. As a result, those institutions acquired all-Ukrainian status. However, this did not affect WUPR missions in the countries that emerged in the territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, namely Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia. Other diplomatic missions become common for the UPR and the WUPR.
The article states that over time certain controversies emerged as for the vision of foreign policy priorities of the WUPR and the UPR. The government and military leadership of the WUPR began to cooperate with the Bolsheviks. One of the reasons is the lack of power of the WUPR armed forces and the Bolshevik sympathy towards them. Besides, the increasing number of Galician and Dnipro Ukraine politicians and diplomats offered Y. Petrushevych to change his foreign policy orientation, distance himself from S. Petliura and be guided solely by his own interests. In turn, S. Petliura forged an agreement on behalf of the UPR on the recognition of Eastern Galicia as part of Poland and the rejection of previous acts of national unity.
The article also deals with the process of establishing the military cooperation of the WUPR with the Bolsheviks and the agreements inter se.
Keywords: WUPR, UPR, military-political alliance, diplomacy, foreign policy, Bolsheviks.

Download Article (ukr)

References
1. Vytvytskyi, S. (1995). Halychyna v mizhnarodnii politytsi v 1914–1923 rokakh. Ukrainskyi istoryk, no. 1/4, pp. 100-118. [in Ukrainian]
2. Maritchak, O. (1966). Dyplomatiia y vyzvolni zmahannia natsii: (Spomyny i refleksii). Almanakh ‘Homonu Ukrainy’ na rik 1967: U 50-richchia Ukr. nats. revoliutsii i 100-richchia Kanady, pp. 94-104. [in Ukrainian]
3. Mazepa, I. (1943). Ukraina v ohni y buri revoliutsii. 1917–1921: u 3 t., vol. 3. Prague: Proboiem. [in Ukrainian]
4. Mytsiuk, O. (1938). Doba Dyrektorii UNR. Spomyny i rozdumy. Lviv. [in Ukrainian]
5. Doroshenko, D. (1969). Moi spomyny pro nedavnie-mynule (1914–1920). Munich: Ukrainske vydavnytstvo. [in Ukrainian]
6. Veryha, V. (1998). Vyzvolni zmahannia v Ukraini. 1914–1923: u 2 t. Lviv: In-t ukrainoznavstva im. Ivana Krypiakevycha. [in Ukrainian]
7. Hunchak, T. (1993). Ukraina: persha polovyna XX st.: Narysy politychnoi istorii. Kyiv: Lybid. [in Ukrainian]
8. Nahaievskyi, I. (1993). Istoriia Ukrainskoi derzhavy dvadtsiatoho stolittia. Kyiv: Ukrainskyi pysmennyk. [in Ukrainian]
10. Pavliuk, O. (1997). Zovnishnia polityka ZUNR. Kyivska starovyna, no. 3-4, pp.114-138. [in Ukrainian]
11. Holovchenko, V., Matviienko, V. (2006). Vizii dyplomata Vasylia Paneika. Pamiat stolit, no. 2, pp.148-151. [in Ukrainian]
12. Brytskyi, P., Dobrzhanskyi, O. (2007). Bukovyntsi na dyplomatychnii sluzhbi UNR ta ZUNR. Chernivtsi: Zoloti lytavry. [in Ukrainian]
13. Viedienieiev, D. (2007). Dyplomatychna sluzhba Ukrainskoi derzhavy 1917–1923 roky. Kyiv: Natsionalna akademiia SBU. [in Ukrainian]
14. Derzhaliuk, M. (1998). Mizhnarodne stanovyshche Ukrainy ta yii vyzvolna borotba v 1917–1922 rokakh. Kyiv.
15. Moroz, O. (1999). ZUNR: dosvid derzhavotvorennia ta uroky dyplomatii. Visnyk LDU, pp.46-53. [in Ukrainian]
16. Soloviova, V., Reient, O. (2006). Dyplomatychna diialnist ukrainskykh natsionalnykh uriadiv 1917–1921 rr.: monohrafiia. Kyiv: In-t istorii Ukrainy NAN Ukrainy. [in Ukrainian]
17. Lytvyn, M., Naumenko, K. (1995). Istoriia ZUNR. [in Ukrainian]
18. Lozynskyi, M. (1970). Halychyna v pp. 1918–1920. New York. [in Ukrainian]
19. TsDIAL Ukrainy. F. 383. Osobystyi fond Okunevskoho Yaroslava, Op. 1. Spr. 3. Ark. 4–5. [in Ukrainian]
20. Ukrainskyi prapor (1919), 5 April. [in Ukrainian]
21. Makarchuk, S. (1997). Ukrainska Respublika halychan. Narysy pro ZUNR. Lviv: Svit. [in Ukrainian]